Search site

Contact

Kotakonda Sivakumar M.Sc. B.Ed. M.Phil Junior Lecturer
6/105 Girija Street
Rly.Kodur
Kadapa Dt AP
India

9440351489

kskumar1669@gmail.com

New category

sr botany qp blue print

02/05/2015 09:31
sr blue print.pdf (38204)

practical botany tm notes (new syllabus)

02/05/2015 05:17
practical_botany_tm_new_syllabus.pdf (107788)

sr botany prefinal question paper

02/05/2015 05:13
BOT PRE FINAL QP SENIORS.pdf (43896)

botany prefinal question papers-juniors (2014-15)

02/05/2015 05:05
BOT PRE FINAL QP JUNIORS.pdf (59909)

jr botany deleted and added questions

02/05/2015 04:53
jr botany delitions additions pdf.pdf (51884)

sr botany new questions

02/05/2015 04:40
sr botany new questions.pdf (3686164)

junior botany telugu medium notes

02/05/2015 04:19
junior botany tm.pdf (2621701)

jr brief botany

05/10/2012 04:23

Leaf modifications

Modification

Function

Example

Cotyledon

First leaves

Dicots and Monocots

Leaf tendril

Climbing in weak stems

Lathrys, Smilax, Pisum

Spines

Xeric adaptation, Protection

Opuntia, Acasia

Phyllode

Petiole as leaf to perform photosynthesis

Acasia melanoxylon, parkinsonia

Scale leaves

To reduce transpiration    , to protect buds,          storage of food

Casuarina            Underground stems   Allium cepa                              

Absorbing leaves

Absorption of water

Utricularia, Hydrilla

Storage leaves

Storage of food, water and mucilage

Aloe , Agave

Reproductive leaves

Vegetative propagation

Bryophyllum, Scilla, Begonia

Trap leaves

Traping and digesting insects

Nepenthes

Phyllotaxy

Type

Character

Example

Alternate

Single leaf arise at each node

Hibiscus, Mangifera

Opposite  a. Decussate

One pair of leave at right angles to next upper or lower pair.

Calotropis

Opposite  b. Superposed

Pair of leaves directly over the lower pair .

Quisqualis

Whorled

More than two leaves at each node

Nerium

Leaf mosaic

Arrangement of leaves to expose all leaves to sunlight , arranging small leaves in the gaps of large leaves . Type of alternate phyllotaxy.

Acalypha

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Venation

Type

Nature of venation

Examples

Reticulate

Main vein give rise laterl veins and vein lets and form network pattern .It is of two types.

Hibiscus

  a. Pinnate

A single main vein give rise lateral veins and vein lets 

Hibiscus

  b. Palmate

Many strong veins arise from tip of petiole. It is of two types

 

i.  Divergent

Veins diverge to margin

Passiflora, Cucurbits

ii. Convergent

Veins converge at leaf apex

Zizypus, Cinnamomum

Parallel

Main vein give rise lateral veins . Lateral veins paralles to each other. It is of two types namely

 

a. Pinnate

A single mid vein give rise laterl veins which are parallel to each other run to margin

Musa

b. Palmate

Number of strong veins arise from the tip of petiole. It is of two types.

 

i.  Divergent

Veins run towards margin in parallel manner

Borassus flabellifer

ii.  Convergent

Veins run to apex of leaf  in parallel direction.

Grasses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contrivances of cross pollination

Device

Natire

Examples

Diclny

Flowers unisexual              a. monecious                        b. dioecious

                                    Cocos,                         Carica ,Vallisnaria

Dichogamy          

Anther and stigma mature at different times . It is of two types

 

a. Protandry

Anthers mature earlier than stigma

Gossypium

b. Protogyny

Stigma mature earlier than anthers

Solanum

Herkogamy

Stigma and anthers in different heights or in different directions

Hibiscus,                 Gloriosa .

Heterostyly

Styles of different lengths

Primula , dimorphic      Lythrum, trimorphic

Self sterility

Pollen fail to germinate on the stigma of same flower

Passiflora, Abutilon

Pollen prepotency

Foreign pollen germinate earlier than its own pollen  on stigma

Dolichos

Sensitive stigmas

Stigmatic lobes sensitive and open only for foreign pollen

Martynia,  Mimulus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Types of ovules

Type

Nature

Example

Orthotropous

Micropyle,funiculus and chalaza in a straight line.

Polygonaceae

Anatropous

Ovule inverted, funicle and micropyle lie side by side. Raphae present.

Tridax

Hemitropous

Integuments and nucellus at right angles to funicle.

Rannunculus

Amphitropous

Ovule with embryo sac horse shoe shaped, micropyle,chalaza,funicle lie nearer to one another

Alisma

Circinotropous

Funicle long and circinately coiled

Opuntia

Dicot root transvers section

 

Epidermis

Unilayered protective structure ; cuticle and stomata absent. Root hair useful for absorption

Cortex.

It is differentiated into Exodermis, general cortex and  endodermis                      

a. Exodermis

Cells suberised, prevents the leakage of water

b. General cortex

Parechytamous helps in storage of food

c.  Endodermis

Has cdasparian bands on radial walls. Passage cells help in movement of water and salts from cortex to xylem

Stele

It is differentiated into four parts they are pericycle ,vascular bundle, conjuctive tissue and medulla 

a.Pericycle

Single layered, parenchymatous, gives lateral roots

b.Vascular bundle

Limited, radial and separate,exarch; conduct water and nutrients

c.Conjunctive tissue

Parenchymatous;

d.Medulla or Pith

Highly reduced or completely absent parenchymatous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monocot root transeverse section

 

Epidermis

Unilayered protective structure ; cuticle and stomata absent. Root hair useful for absorption

Cortex.

It is differentiated into Exodermis, general cortex and  endodermis                      

a. Exodermis

Cells suberised, prevents the leakage of water

b. General cortex

Parechytamous helps in storage of food

c.  Endodermis

Has casparian bands on radial walls. Passage cells help in movement of water and salts from cortex to xylem

Stele

It is differentiated into four parts they are pericycle ,vascular bundle, conjuctive tissue and medulla 

a.Pericycle

Single layered, parenchymatous, gives lateral roots

b.Vascular bundle

numerous, radial and separate,exarch; conduct water and nutrients

c.Conjunctive tissue

Parenchymatous;

d.Medulla or Pith

Large, parenchymatous, stores food

 

 

Dicot stem anatomy

 

Epidermis

Uni seriate ,protective layer, cuticle, stomata and hairs present

Cortex.

It is differentiated intoHypodermis, general cortex and  endodermis                      

a. Hypodermis

Collenchymatous; mechanical and assimilatory functions

b. General cortex

Parechytamous helps in storage and assimilatory functions

c.  Endodermis

Has casparian bands on radial walls. Store food called starch sheath

Stele

It is differentiated into four parts they are pericycle ,vascular bundle, medullary rays and medulla 

a.Pericycle

Sclerenchymatous or partly parenchymatous; provide mechanical strength.

b.Vascular bundle

Limited ,arranged in a ring, conjoint, collateral,open, endarch; conduct water and nutrients

c.Medullary rays

Extensions of medulla, parenchymatous, dedifferentiate as meristem during secondary growth.

d.Medulla or Pith

parenchymatous, stores food

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monocot stem anatomy

Epidermis

Uni seriate ,protective layer, cuticle,and stomata present

Hypodermis

Sclerenchymatous gives mechanical strength.

Vascular bundles

Numetous, scattered in ground tissue, fibrovascular conjoint, collateral, closed, endarch, conduct water and nutrients; protoxylem lacuna is formed lysigenously.- atactostele

Ground tissue

Parechytamous helps in storage and assimilatory functions

Special Inflorescences

Type

Character

Examples

Cyathium

Condensed flower like inflorescence; each stamen represents a male flower and pistil a female flower; covered by cup shaped involucre with nectarines

Euphorbia

Verticellaster

A false whorl or verticel formed by tow opposite axillary inflorescence. Each starts as dichasial but continues as monchasial on either side, flowers almost sessile.

Leucas

Hypanthodium

Peduncle flesy cup shaped; unisexual flowers on the inside wall;

Ficus

Books and authors

Book

Author

Historia Plantarum

Theophrastus

Micrographia

Robert Hook

Genera plantarum

Bentham and Hooker

Species Plantarum

Linnaeus

Flora of British India

J.D.Hooker

Origin of Species

Charles Darwin

 

 

Theories proposed by scientists

Cell theory

Schleiden and Schwann

Cell lineage theory

Rudolf Virchow

Chromosome theory

Sutton and Boveri

Gene theory

T.H. Morgan

Mutation theory

Hugo de Vries

Sex linked inheritance

T.H. Morgan

Root pressure theory

Stephen Hales

 

 

 

Models proposed by scientist

Model

for

Proposers

Trilamellar model

Plasma membrane

Danielli and Davson

Fluid mosaic model

Plasma membrane

Singer and Nicolson

Double helix model

DNA

Watson and Crick

Clover leaf model

t-RNA

R.Holey

Nucleosome model

Chromatin ,histone proteins

 

 

 

 

Fathers of branches

Aristotle

Biology

Theophrastus

Botany

Linnaeus

Taxonomy

Robert Hook

Cytology

Genetics

Mendel

Prof. Birbal Sahni

Indian Paleobotany

M.O.P.Iyyengar

Indian phycology

P.Maheswar

Indian Embryology

Aerial stem modification

Type

Nature

Function

Examples

Tendril

Axillary or terminal bud modify into leafless spirally coiled sensitive structure

Climbing

Passiflora-axillary bud, Cissus-apical bud

Hooke

Axillary or terminal bud modify into curved woody sensitive structure.

Climbing

Hugonia-axillaary bud, Artabotrys-apical bud

Thorn

Axillary or terminal bud modify into pointed woody structure

Xerophytic, Protection

Bougainvillea-Ax.bud, Carissa-Terminal bud

Phylloclade

Stem is modify into leaf like structure 

Xerophytic adaptation, Synthesis of food

Opuntia, Casuarina.

Cladode

Phylloclade of one internode length

Xerophytic adaptation, Synthesis of food

Asparagus, Ruscus

Tuberous stem

Store food in stem

Storage

Knol-Khol, Bulbophyllum

Bulbil

Reserve food in buds

Vegetative propagation

Dioscorea, Agave

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Underground stms

Feature

Rhzome

Corm

Stem tuber

Bulb

Growth

Horizontal

Vertical

Oblique

Horizontal/vertical

Nature

Dorsiventrally flattend

Round

Round ,oblong

Disc like

Storage

Fleshy

Store food

Store food

Dry not store food

Roots

Adventitious roots on ventral side

Contractile roots to maintain position of corm

absent

Adventious roots from ventral side

Nodes and internodes

Present

Present

In the form of eyes

 

 

Features:

1.Nodes and Internodes

2.Scale leaves

3.axillary buds for vegetative propagation

4.Terminal bud for aerial growth

Functions:

1.To protect from herbivores

3. For perennation

4.For vegetative propagation

2.Storage of food

 

 

Alkaloid/priduct

Plant

Family

use

Atropine

Atropa bellodona

Solonaceae

Plasters

Nicotine

Nicotiana tabacum

Solonaceae

Narcotic

Aswagandh

Withania somnifera

Solonaceae

Ayurvedic

Hyoscyamine

Hyoscyamus niger

Solonaceae

Perfume

Capsin

Capsicum frutiscens

Solonaceae

Condiment

Colchicine

Colchicum autumnale

Liliaceae

Mutagen

Comparative Study of Families

Feature

Malvaceae

Fabaceae

Solonaceae

Liliaceae

Class

Dicotyledonae

Dicotyledonae

Dicotyledonae

Monocotyledonae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             

 

Double Fertilization

                                                        Syngamy

1.)  First gamete(n) + Zygote  (2n)                    Zygote ( 2n )

                                                         Strasburger

 

                                                                              Triple fusion

2.) Second gamete (n)  +Secondary Nucleus (n)                          Primary Endosperm Nucleus ( 3n )

                                                                              Nawachin      

 

                           

 

Types of entry of pollen tube into the Ovule

Type

Entry into Ovule

Example

Porogamy

Through micropyle

Otellia

Chalazogamy

Through  chalaza

Casuarina

Mesogamy

Through intuguments or funiculus

Cucurbita

 

 

Endosperm

Feature

Gymnosperms Endosperm

Angiosperms Endosperm

Formed

Before fertilisation

After fertilization

Ploidy

Haploid

Diploid

Starting cell

Megaspore

Primary Endosperm Nucleus

Function

Nutrition for embryo

Nutrition for embryo

 

New list

This list is empty.